Videos and Best Practice – Problem Solving and Making Decisions

Here you can find the research that has been undertaken by the partnership along with useful videos and the best practice for problem solving and decision making!


Best Practice

Individual Placement Services (IPS)


Thematic area: Decision Making and Problem-Solving solutions Country: UK



Helping people with mental health problems find employment


IPS supports people with severe mental health difficulties into employment. It involves intensive, individual support, a rapid job search followed by placement in paid employment, and time-unlimited in-work support for both the employee and the employer.

Methodology and Tools


IPS uses a personalised and strength-based approach and has a focus on building relationships with employers. IPS directly tackles the lack of integration of mental healthcare and employment services and the disconnection of different specialists by integrating employment specialists into community mental health teams.

In response to feedback from people accessing mental health services and international research, the IPS sector in the UK is at a turning point due to NHS England making a commitment to expand access to employment support within the mental health system over the next 10 years.

Impact & Outcomes:

It aims to get people into competitive employment. It is open to all those who want to work.

It tries to find jobs consistent with people’s preferences. It works quickly.

It brings employment specialists into clinical teams.

Employment specialists develop relationships with employers based upon a person’s work preferences.

It provides time unlimited, individualised support for the person and their employer.

Benefits counselling is included.


Individual Placement and Support offers route to employment for people with severe mental illness-NHS video: in Scotland:

Patient in Scotland:



Thematic area: Decision Making and Problem-Solving solutions Country: UK



The objective of Lifeworks is to improve mental health and resilience of socially excluded people.


The program was initiated by the voluntary sector and is a service-delivery approach/method.

Methodology  & tools:
Activity 1:

Activities focus on individual psychotherapy in accessible places such as hostels, day centres, and other community settings.

Concrete results of Lifeworks include:

  • 70% engagement from rough sleepers and homeless people and >75% attendance
  • >75% positive outcomes, as measured by the South London and Maudsley evidence-based Well-being Measure
  • an increase in social functioning across all measures of Outcomes Star (for example 44% of people were in training or work placement after six months, compared to 20% of those who were not in the service).
Activity 2:

Evaluation of the LifeWorks project has found that:

  • 75% of clients showed an improvement in mental wellbeing
  • Impact on a wide range of social outcomes: e.g. 42% of LifeWorks clients were in employment or training placements by the end of the therapy
  • Impact on a wide range of health outcomes: e.g. increasing take-up of appropriate treatment and reducing use of emergency services
  • Higher take-up and completion rates and more recovery outcomes than the IAPT programme (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies) despite working with chronically excluded adults with complex needs.
Impact & Outcomes:

LifeWorks offered homeless people access to fully qualified psychotherapists regardless of diagnosis or active substance use. It provided face-to-face psychotherapy to chronically excluded adults who were homeless or at risk of homelessness at ten different sites across London.

Using Cognitive Behaviourial Therapy (CBT)


Thematic area: Decision Making and Problem-Solving solutions Country: UK & The rest of the world



CBT aims to help to deal with overwhelming problems in a more positive way by breaking them down into smaller parts.


Using Talking / Writing therapy

Methodology  & tools:

In CBT, problems are broken down into 5 main areas: situations, thoughts, emotions, physical feelings, and actions. CBT is based on the concept of these 5 areas being interconnected and affecting each other. For example, your thoughts about a certain situation can often affect how you feel both physically and emotionally, as well as how you act in response.

CBT can be carried out with a therapist (i.e. 1-to-1 sessions or in groups with other people in a similar situation). If you carry out CBT on an individual basis, you will meet with a CBT therapist for between 5 and 20 weekly sessions or fortnightly sessions, with each session lasting 30 to 60 minutes. You can also carry out CBT remotely and alone with online resources.

The exposure therapy sessions usually last longer to ensure your anxiety reduces during the session. The therapy may take place:

  • in a clinic
  • outside – if you have specific fears (i.e. in a clinic)
  • in your own home – particularly if you have agoraphobia or OCD involving a specific fear of items at home

Your CBT therapy can be delivered by a healthcare professional who has been specially trained in CBT, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, mental health nurse or GP.

Impact & Outcomes:


  • It may be helpful in cases where medicine alone has not been successful.
  • It can be completed in a relatively short period of time compared with other talking/writing therapies.
  • The highly structured nature of CBT means it can be provided in different formats, including in groups, self-help books and apps (i.e. you can find mental health apps and tools in the NHS apps library).
  • It teaches you useful and practical strategies, including practising gratitude and focusing on the positives of a situation and how the negatives can be dealt with, and these can be used in everyday life, even after the treatment has finished.


  • You need to commit yourself to the process to get the most from it – a therapist can help and advise you, but they need your co-operation.
  • Attending regular CBT sessions and carrying out any extra work between sessions can take up a lot of your time.
  • It may not be suitable for people with more complex mental health needs or learning difficulties, as it requires structured sessions.
  • It involves confronting your emotions and anxieties – you may experience initial periods where you’re anxious or emotionally are uncomfortable.
  • It focuses on the person’s capacity to change themselves (i.e. their thoughts, feelings and behaviours) – this does not address any wider problems in systems or families that often have a significant impact on someone’s health and wellbeing.
Useful information:

Health and Safety Executive (HSE)


Thematic area: Decision Making and Problem-Solving solutions Country: UK



HSE’s mission is to prevent death, injury and ill-health to workers and others affected by work activities in Great Britain.


HSE prevents death, injury and ill-health in Great Britain’s workplaces – by becoming part of the solution to problems.

HSE’s emphasis is on prevention but, where appropriate, they will enforce the law where they find it is being deliberately flouted. They take enforcement action to ensure duty holders:

  • deal immediately with serious risks (so they prevent harm)
  • comply with the law
  • are held to account if they fail in their responsibilities

Their enforcement action is proportionate, targeted, consistent, transparent and accountable.

When making these decisions, they take into account economic growth and the impact their actions are likely to have on businesses.

Methodologies and Tools



  • promotes safer working practices, advising employers and workers on health and safety,
  • carries out relevant research,
  • develops health and safety policy and strategy,
  • ensures compliance with health and safety law through inspections, investigations and prosecutions.
Impact & Outcomes:


  • Addressing health and safety offers significant opportunities:
  • reduced costs;
  • reduced risks;
  • lower employee absence and turnover rates; fewer accidents;
  • lessened threat of legal action;
  • improved standing among suppliers and partners;
  • better reputation  for corporate responsibility among  investors, customers and communities;
  • increased productivity, because employees are healthier, happier and better motivated


  • It costs to use HSE’s services.
Useful information:

The health and Safety Executive Story:

Workplace factors – Stress – Go Home Healthy:

Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Stress Indicator Tool:


 “The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.”

This is an educative website to help develop strategies for improving mental wellbeing. If you are currently experiencing emotional distress and you have a history of experiencing mental health challenges you are strongly advised to contact your general practitioner /doctor.